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從Jeep吉普車到悍馬車的發展過程

Jeep吉普車是由美軍在二次世界大戰時採用的Willys MB Jeep所代表的Light Utility Vehicle (輕型多用途車) 。

自從Jeep問世後,輕型多用途車在戰場上的重要性被世界各國的軍隊認同,不但大量外銷,也有很多國家直接研發製造類似的車輛。美國將軍/總統艾森豪威爾更說過在二次大戰中,對於美軍最重要的武器是”C-47運輸機,巴祖卡火箭筒, 原子彈, 以及Jeep吉普車“

在二次世界大戰後,蘇聯以及其他共產國家製造了基本上是拷貝的Jeep叫做GAZ-64,之後的輕型多用途車也是在GAZ-64的基礎上所開發的。

美國則是繼續研究Jeep的改良版,包括在越戰中使用的M-151 MUTT. 但是在越戰後,Jeep本身的缺點開始被美軍所重視,基於在戰場上的實戰經驗,美軍開始了新一代的輕型多用途車的後續研發,也就是後來開發成功的悍馬車。

比較起以前的Jeep, 悍馬車可以擔任更多種的作戰任務(車上的引擎功效明顯提高,可載的裝備重量也大幅增加),車身結構也更加的堅固, 經過特別加寬後的車身在泥地,沙漠等地形也可以安穩的運作,沒有翻車的問題。由於設計時有考慮到替代不止吉普車,也要勝任其他軍用車戰時的任務,悍馬車這台多功能輕型車可以讓軍隊統一使用,並簡化到只有一種車型,對後勤維修供應鏈的負擔相對減少。


In the 1970s, the United States Army concluded that the militarized civilian trucks in use no longer satisfied their requirements. In 1977, Lamborghini developed the Cheetah model in attempt to meet the Army contract specifications. In 1979, the Army drafted final specifications for a High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle, or HMMWV. In July of that year, AM General (a subsidiary of American Motors Corporation) began preliminary design work, and less than a year later, the first prototype, the M998, was in testing.

In June 1981, the Army awarded AM General a contract for development of several more prototype vehicles to be delivered to the U.S. government for another series of tests, and the company was later awarded the initial production contract for 55,000 HMMWVs to be delivered in 1985. HMMWVs first saw combat in Operation Just Cause, the US invasion of Panama in 1989.

The HMMWV has become the vehicular backbone of U.S. forces around the world. Over 10,000 were employed by coalition forces during Operation Iraqi Freedom, the 2003 invasion of Iraq.



Major HMMWV versions

M56 Coyote Smoke Generator Carrier

M707 HMMWV

M966 HMMWV TOW Armored

M996 Mini-Ambulance, Armored

M997 Maxi-Ambulance, Armored

M998 Cargo/Troop

M998 HMMWV Avenger

M1025 Armament Carrier, Armored

M1026 Armament Carrier, Armored W/W

M1035 Soft-Top Ambulance

M1036 TOW Armored W/W

M1037 S-250 Shelter Carrier

M1038 Cargo/Troop Carrier W/W

M1042 S-250 Shelter Carrier W/W

M1043 Armament Carrier, Up-Armored

M1044 Armament Carrier, Up-Armored W/W

M1045 TOW Up-Armored Armor

M1046 TOW Up-Armored Armor W/W

M1069 Tractor for M119 105-mm Gun

M1097 Heavy

M1097 Heavy HMMWV Avenger

M1109 Up-Armored Armament Carrier

ZEUS-HLONS

Ground Mobility Vehicle

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